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Radicchio

A crisp variety of chicory with a bitter, peppery taste. Radicchio has small hearts, red with white veins, and is generally used in salads mixed with other salad leaves

Ragout

A French stew of meat, poultry or fish. The term is also used to describe a sauce.

Raised pie

A pork, ham or game pie that is made with hot water crust pastry.

Rambutan

A relation of the lychee, this exotic fruit has a brown leathery skin with soft spines and a white, translucent flesh that resembles the lychee in taste and texture.

Ramekins

Small ovenproof bowls made of earthenware, porcelain or metal which are used for individual souffles, mousses or egg dishes.

Ras el hanout

A Moroccan spice mixture that can contain up to 100 different spices and is used in couscous, rice, meat and vegetable dishes; like garam masala, the mixture of spices in ras el hanout depends on the maker and the spices available, but may include cardamo

Ratafia biscuits

Light biscuits made with almond essence, very similar to the Italian amaretti biscuit. Used in trifles or crumbled into puddings.

Ratatouille

Vegetable stew trypical of Proven§al cookery, made from aubergines, courgettes, sweet peppers, tomatoes, onions and garlic simmered in olive oil with herbs.

Ravioli

Small, square pasta cases that are stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables and cooked in water and served with tomato sauce and grated cheese.

Ravioli

Small savoury filled pasta envelopes which are boiled and served with a sauce and grated cheese.

Rechauffe

A dish prepared from leftover food.

Reduce

To evaporate by fast boiling a flavoured liquid, such as a sauce or syrup, in order to concentrate the flavour or to thicken it.

Reform sauce

An English sauce based on poivrade sauce which contains shallots, red wine, herbs and vinegar, reform sauce has the rich combination of port, gherkins, tongue, mushrooms and hard-boiled egg whites, and is best served with either lamb or game.

Relax

Term used to describe 'resting' pastry after rolling out to prevent shrinkage.

Relish

Sharp or spicy sauce made with fruit or vegetables which adds a piquant flavour to other foods.

Rendering

#1. Slowly cooking meat tissues and trimmings to obtain fat. #2. Clearing frying fat by heating it.

Rennet

An extract from the stomach of cows or sheep, used to curdle milk for cheese making. A vegetarian alternative to rennet is now used in making vegetarian cheese.

Rice flour

Rice flour can be used to thicken soups and stews, as well as providing an alternative to wheat flour in cakes and biscuits.

Rice paper

Edible, glossy white paper made from the pith of a tree grown in China. Used for macaroon base.

Rice vinegar

Wine vinegar made from rice wine used in oriental cookery.

Rice wine

An essential ingredient in Chinese and Japanese cooking and other Oriental cuisines. This sweet wine is low in alcohol and is made by fermenting freshly steamed glutinous rice. Also known as mirin or sake, rice wine is used in sauces, marinades and glazes

Rice wine:

Called Shao Hsing in China. A dry, strong wine made from rice.

Ricotta

An Italian ewe’s milk curd cheese that when unripened is creamy, soft and smooth. It can be eaten fresh with fruit or flavoured with sugar and cinnamon as it has rather a bland flavour. It is used in many Italian dishes especially as a stuffing for ravi

Rigatoni

Large ribbed pasta tubes.

Rillette

A paste made from pork, rabbit, goose or poultry meat cooked in lard. The smooth pounded meat is potted and served as a cold hors d'oeuvre.

Risotto

Italian dish made from rice cooked with stock, similar to a stew or broth. Other ingredients are added as required

Rissoles

Round minced meat patties rolled in crumbs and fried.

Roasting

Cooking in the oven with radiant heat, or on a spit over or under an open flame.

Rock salt

A salt derived from the huge seams of impacted salt that have formed below the dried-out, underground saline lakes of prehistoric times.

Rocket

Also known as arugula. This green salad vegetable is popular in Mediterranean countries. The leaves have a slightly bitter, peppery flavour and should be gathered when young. Rocket is a rich source of iron as well as vitamins A and C.

Roe

#1. Milt of the male fish, called soft roe. #2. Eggs of the female fish, called hard roe. 3. Shellfish roe, called coral because of its colour.

Rogan josh

A spicy, rich red lamb stew from India.

Rolling boil

A full boil that cannot be stirred down.

Romano

In the style of Rome.

Roquefort

A French veined cheese made from ewe’s milk. It is matured in ancient caves in the Aveyron region and takes three months to ripen. The result is a semi-soft crumbly cheese with blue-green veins.

Rosemary

An aromatic shrub native to Mediterranean countries whose evergreen leaves are used either fresh or dried. Rosemary has a very pungent taste, so not much is needed to flavour a marinade, a stew or a grill. It goes particularly well with lamb, veal, sausag

Rosewater

A flavoured water made by distilling rose petals, rosewater is essentially a flavour used in Eastern cooking. Its fragrance can be added to jellies and syrups, and it is often sprinkled over cakes and milky puddings

Rosti

This thick crispy golden brown cake is a traditional Swiss potato dish. Parboiled and grated potatoes are spread in a frying pan to form a thick cake which is cooked on both sides, cut into ample wedges and served with all meat dishes or with eggs for bre

Rouille

A pungent Proven§al sauce to serve with bouillabaisse, made from chillies, garlic and oil.

Roulade

This French word for 'roll' applies to slices of meat rolled around a filling. It also refers to a souffle-type mixture that is cooked in a Swiss roll tin and spread with either a sweet or savoury filling before being rolled and served hot or cold.

Roux

A roux is a cooked mixture of equal quantities of butter and flour that is the base for sauces such as white sauce and b©chamel.

Rump

Cut of beef from the lower back, sold as roasting joints and steaks - slightly less tender than sirloin.

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