A name given to several types of flatfish that are a variety of flounder. Dabs are saltwater fish that have flaky white flesh when cooked and a mild flavor.


Long white Japanese vegetable of the radish family.

Danbo Cheese

A cow's milk cheese from Denmark that is light yellow in color with a semi-soft and slightly rubbery texture and a mild flavor.


Commonly considered a weed, dandelions provide excellent salad leaves when young.

Danish Pastry

A large, flat type of roll prepared with a rich, flaky pastry of sweet, yeast-leavened dough. The roll is often filled with fruit, preserves, nuts, or cheese and is a popular breakfast item.


A small steep-sided cylindrical mould - or whatever has been cooked in such a mould.

Darjeeling Tea

A type of tea known for its subtle wine like flavor. It is also referred to as the ''Champagne of Teas''.

Dark Raisin

A raisin that is sun-dried for several weeks, causing it to become dark and shriveled in appearance.


Thick slice cut from round fish.


Refers to the addition of a very small amount of an ingredient to a mixture, such as a "dash of pepper". A dash is generally equivalent to a little more than 1/16th of a teaspoon.


A type of soup stock prepared with dried bonito tuna flakes, seaweed, and water. It is used in Japanese cooking and is most often the simplest form of a base stock for noodle dishes.


The stoned fruit of the palm tree, eaten either fresh or dried and sold in their clusters or in boxes.


A method of braising meat, certain vegetables and some fish.

Dauphin Cheese

A semi-hard, unpasteurized goat's milk cheese from France.


Baked in a slow oven with cream and garlic. A gratin dauphinois is a dish of potatoes cooked in such a way.

Decaffeinated Coffee

A popular beverage brewed from ground coffee beans and water and containing very little caffeine.


The process of pouring a liquid from one container into another in order to allow the liquid to breathe (areate) and to separate any unwanted deposits (sediment) so that it remains in the original container.


A glass or crystal vessel that wine is poured into for optimal aeration and sediment separation before consuming.


A cut of beef that refers to the piece of meat that is over the shoulder of the steer.

Deep (wine)

Characteristic of a premium wine that fills the mouth with developing, subtle layers of flavor that gradually unfold with aeration.

Deep fat

Hot fat or oil which is deep enough to cover food during frying.

Deep Fry

The process of cooking food in hot fat in a large pot so that the food is totally covered with the liquid fat.


Frying food by immersing it in hot fat or oil.


The process of thawing food that has been frozen to eliminate the frost and ice so that the food can be prepared for eating.


Diluting pan juices by adding wine, stock or cream to make gravy.


To heat wine, stock or other liquid together with the cooking juices and sediment left in the pan after roasting or saut©ing in order to make a sauce or gravy.


Refers to the process of removing the fat from the surface of a sauce, soup, or stew.

Dehydrated Food

Types of food that have been dried to remove most of their natural moisture in order to preserve the food.

Deli Meat

Fresh or canned meat that consists of precooked, ready to serve meat loaves or sausages made from pork, ham, or beef.

Della Rice

An aromatic rice native to the United States that is a cross between the basmati rice and the long grain rice.

Delmonico Potatoes

A potato dish that is prepared by dicing or mashing potatoes, mixing the potatoes with seasonings, and in some instances, adding cream or milk.

Delmonico Steak

A cut of meat and steak dinner made world famous by Delmonico's Restaurant in New York during the mid 1800's.

Demerara sugar

A pale-coloured and mild-tasting raw cane sugar named after its place of origin in Guyana.

Demi-glace sauce

This rich brown sauce, made from a reduction of dark beef stock, is the basis for classic sauces such as Madeira, Diane and Reform.


A small amount of rich coffee usually served after meals in a small cup called a demitasse.

Derby Cheese

A creamery cheese from the Derbyshire region of England that is made from cow's milk.

Descaling fish

Removing the scales from a fish.


Refers to the final course of a meal. In the United States, dessert usually consists of a sweet dish such as cake, pastry, or ice cream. In Europe, fruit, cheese, and nuts are popular as a final course.


Refers to the removal of the large vein that runs down the length of a shrimp.

Deviled Egg

A hard-boiled egg in which the yolk is removed and blended with other ingredients such as mayonnaise, mustard, and seasonings.

Deviled Ham

Ham meat or a mixture of ham and pork shoulder meat that is cured and then cooked with water, spices and other ingredients.


Preparing meat, poultry or fish with highly seasoned ingredients, for grilling or roasting.

Devonshire Cream

A type of cream with a rich, buttery texture that is used as a topping for desserts. It is also known as clotted cream and originated in Devon, England.


The process of cutting food into small cubes of fairly equal size so that the food is evenly cooked.

Digestive biscuits

Digestives are made from coarse brown flour which give them their distinctive texture and flavour.

Dijon Mustard

A type of mustard produced from brown or black mustard seeds, white wine, and seasonings.


An herb belonging to the parsley family with fine, feathery leaves.


Refers to the process of thinning a liquid by adding more liquid and/or reducing the flavor by adding liquid.

Dim sum

Small steamed or deep-fried dumplings with various fillings served as a starter at a Chinese meal.


A mixture of ingredients that complements other foods such as raw vegetables, chips, or toast, which are dipped into it.

Dirty Rice

A Cajun food dish.


The process of cutting or pulling apart cust of meat that are joined at a common point or a joint.

Distilled White Vinegar

A type of vinegar that is obtained from a grain alcohol and has a strong, unpleasant taste. It is mainly used for pickling and as a cleaning agent.

Ditali Pasta

Small, short-cut pasta tubes that are approximately 3/8" long.

Ditalini Pasta

A pasta shaped like a small tube that is often used in soups. A larger version of ditalini is known as ditali.


Also known as: Dolsin, Dolsin Nero. A grape varietal, used in the production of red wine, originating in the Piedmont region of Italy.


A very small amount of a soft food item that can be formed into a small round shape as a serving.


A traditional Greek dish of rolled grape or cabbage leaves that have been stuffed with a variety of ingredients including chopped meat (beef or lamb), rice, pine nuts, onions, and seasonings.


A grape varietal most notably known as Dolcetto, used in the production of red wine,


The level or degree of cooking that has been completed for the prepartion of a food.

Donut Peach

A variety of white peach that originated in Asia.

Dory or John Dory

White-fleshed sea fish, also known as St Peter's fish.


A food process involving the placement of small bits and/or pieces of food ingredients over, within, or around the food being prepared

Double Boiler

A type of cooking vessel that includes two separate pots.

Double cream

Double cream is 48 per cent fat and is the most versatile cream as it withstands boiling, whips and freezes well. In the US it is known as heavy cream.

Double Cut Rolling Pin

A type of rolling pin that has closely spaced grooves running the entire length of the pin as well as around the shaft at right angles to the length of the pin.

Double Gloucester Cheese

A type of English cheese that at one time was made only with the milk from Gloucester cows, which are now almost extinct.


A mixture of flour, a leavening agent, and a small amount of liquid ingredients that forms a mass, which is thick, but pliable. Dough is kneaded by hand or a machine an formed into loaves or rolls and baked to produce bread or pastry.


Sweetened dough that is formed into a ring or ball and then deep-fried.


French descriptor of sweet wine. Wines that are "doux" are typically labeled "vin doux".

Dover sole

A flat sea fish found in coastal waters from Denmark to the Mediterranean.

Dragon Tongue Bean

A type of snap bean that is similar to the green bean with an editable pod.


Refers to the process of pouring off the excess liquid or fat from food such as draining the water from boiled pasta or potatoes.


The process of pulling foods through dry ingredients to coat them before cooking.


To pluck, draw and truss poultry or game. #2 To arrange or garnish a cooked dish. #3. To prepare cooked shellfish in their shells, e.g. crab and lobster


A type of sauce prepared for salads that usually has a vinegar and oil base with the addition of herbs and spices.

Dried Bean

Refers to various types of beans that have been dried in order to preserve them for future use.

Dried Beef

Thinly sliced beef that has been smoked, salt cured, and then cut into round or rectangular slices.

Dried Cherries

Cherries that have been pitted and had 75 to 85 percent of the moisture removed through some type of drying process.

Dried Chiles

Any chili that has been dehydrated or dried in order to extend the shelf life and to concentrate the flavor. Among the most popular dried chiles are ancho, cayenne, chipotle, and habanero.

Dried Fruit

Any fruit that has been dehydrated (dried) in order to extend the shelf life and to concentrate the flavor or sweetness.

Dried Pepper Flakes

Chopped red hot chile peppers (usually Cayenne) that are dehydrated to form flakes. They are used to add hotness to food, commonly found at pizzerias as a condiment to sprinkle on pizza.

Dried Plum

A wrinkled shiny skinned fruit, which is native to America, Europe and Asia.

Dried prawns

Dried prawns: roasted and added to coconut curries and vegetable dishes, relishes, and chutneys.

Dried Vegetables

Any vegetable that has been dehydrated or dried in order to extend the shelf life and to concentrate the flavor.


The juices and fat remaining in a pan after meat has been cooked. The drippings are often used as a base for sauce or gravy.

Dritta di Moscufo

A medium size Italian olive that is elongated in shape and a darker violet color when harvested. It is most often used to produce higher quality olive oil.


Refers to the process of pouring a very fine stream of liquid, such as melted butter or a sugar glaze over food for decorative purposes and/or to add flavor.

Dropping consistency

The consistency required of cake mixes where the mixture reluctantly falls off the spoon.

Dry (wine)

A characteristic of wines with little or no sugar. A wine that is slightly sweeter is referred to as “off dryâ€.

Dry Cure

A step in the curing process prior to curing that involves the rubbing of food with a mixture that is used to preserve foods.

Dry Cured Ham

Sometimes referred to as country hams, they are cuts from the hind leg of a hog that have been cured without the injection of water.

Dry Cured Olive

Generally a black olive that has been salt-cured by storing it in salt from one to several months, resulting in a wrinkled flesh. The intent of curing is to remove the bitterness of the olive that makes it inedible prior to curing.

Dry Extract

Solid substance present in wine that can be recovered after the evaporation of water and alcohol. The higher quantity of these solid substances results in wine higher in body.

Dry Milk

Milk that has had most of the water content removed, reducing it to a dry powder form.

Dry Onion

Onions that remain in the ground and are not harvested until they have matured into a larger round onion with dried leaves.

Dry Rub

Refers to a mixture of herbs and spices and similar dry ingredients that are rubbed onto the surface of food (most often meat) to add flavor.

Dry Sausage

A sausage that may be categorized as dry or semi-dry that is cooked, smoked, or un-smoked, and is generally considered as ready-to-eat.

Du Jour

A French phrase meaning ''of the day'' and is commonly used on menus. For example, soup of the day would be ''soup du jour''.

Dublin Bay prawn

Also known as langoustine, Norway lobster and scampi, available fresh or frozen, in and out of their shells. Cook by boiling or grilling, if fresh.

Dull (wine)

A descriptor of wine that is uninteresting and lacking in proper acidity.


A redish-purple seaweed native to the North Atlantic, Northwest Pacific and Eastern European seas that grows in small thick clumps of fronds ranging in length from 1 inch to 6 inches.

Dumb (wine)

Descriptor for young wines (typically red) that do not freely disclose their character.


A small ball of dough that can be fried in a skillet or deep-fried, but is more often poached in a liquid such as a stew or broth.

Dundicut Chile

A small, round chile pepper that is commonly used as a flavoring in Indian cooking.

Dungeness Crab

A variety of crab from the Pacific coast of the United States.


A large, green, spiky, south-east Asian fruit about the size of a football. To all but its fans, the durian has a nauseating smell — in fact its transport has been outlawed by many airlines. The creamy, slightly sweet flesh, however, has an exquisitely

Duroblando Cheese

A firm-textured white cheese traditionally found in Caribbean or Mexican countries.

Durum Wheat

Along with soft wheat and hard wheat, it is one of the three main categories of wheat. It is primarily used to produce semolina, which is used to create numerous varieties of pasta.


To coat lightly with confectioners' sugar or cocoa (cakes and pastries) or another powdery ingredient.

Dutch Oven

A cooking vessel consisting of a large heavy pot with a tightly fitting lid.


A thick p¢t© of chopped mushrooms cooked with onion and thyme. Duxelles is used as a stuffing or garnish and in the preparation of various dishes called   la duxelles. Traditionally used in Beef Wellington.

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